Stem Cells Therapy

Embryonic Stem Cells

If researchers can find a reliable way to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells, they may be able to use the cells to treat certain diseases. For example, by directing the embryonic stem cells to turn into insulin-producing cells, they may be able to transplant the cells into people with type 1 diabetes.

Other medical used & conditions that may potentially be treated with embryonic stem cells include:

  • grow new cells in a laboratory to replace damaged organs or tissues
  • correct parts of organs that don’t work properly
  • research causes of genetic defects in cells
  • research how diseases occur or why certain cells develop into cancer cells
  • test new drugs for safety and effectiveness

To date, we have obtained stem cells from virtually all over the body, in the hopes of finding ways to

avoid the ethical issues associated with

Embryonic Stem Cells.

Adult (Non-embryonic) stem cells- ASCs

Adult stem cells have a misleading name, because they are also found in infants and children. These stem cells come from developed organs and tissues in the body. They’re used by the body to repair and replace damaged tissue in the same area in which they are found. For example, hematopoietic stem cells are a type of adult stem cell found in bone marrow. They make new red blood cells, white blood cells, and other types of blood cells.

Doctors have been performing stem cell transplants, also known as bone marrow transplants, for decades using hematopoietic stem cells in order to treat certain types of cancer

Cord blood stem cells & amniotic fluid stem cells

Cord blood stem cells are harvested from the umbilical cord after childbirth. They can be frozen in cell banks for use in the future. These cells have been successfully used to treat children with blood cancers, such as leukemia, and certain genetic blood disorders.

Stem cells have also been found in amniotic fluid. This is the fluid that surrounds a developing baby inside the mother’s womb. However, more research is needed to help understand the potential uses of amniotic fluid stem cells.

Potential uses of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are one of the most famous and promising stem cell type used in medicine for treatment of varieties of diseases. They have been shown to be effective for a wide range of diseases with a minimal risk profile.

Since stem cells have the ability to turn into various other types of cells, scientists believe that they can be useful for treating and understanding diseases. According to the Mayo Clinic, stem cells can be used to:

Adult Stem Cells (ASCs) - What Do They Do?
How Do They Heal?

 Adult Stem Cells ASC has been used for treatment of a variety of different tissues and diseases ranging from type I diabetes (providing insulin-producing cells) to heart attach (repairing cardiac muscles) to neurological disease (regenerating lost neurons in the brain or spinal cord) besides autoimmune, inflammatory & other degenerative diseases. How do they do that?

Stem Cells, as explained previously, have the power to differentiate into any cell type, all the way from: bone cells to brain cells, heart cells, nerve cells, kidney cells, etc. This is what defines Stem Cells. However, the potency to differentiate into any body cell type is not what defines their healing powers, as not all stem cell types are able to transform into any cell type.

Only a selected few, such a Bone Marrow (BMC) and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), have been identified to different into most cells type and have been successfully used in medicine to treat diseases.

They have been shown to hold several major therapeutic effects, such as:

  1. Down regulation of immune processes and inflammation
  2. Suppression of apoptosis (“programmed cell death”, i.e. the suicide of cells)
  3. Activation of resident stem cells – upregulate progenitor cell mobilization
  4. Induce angiogenesis (development of new blood vessels) – leading to better blood supply
  5. Promote neurogenesis (development of new nervous tissue)
  6. Neuroprotection
  7. Antioxidation

After initial damage to tissues or organs, such as mechanical forces in trauma or the lack of blood supply in strokes and heart attacks, further damage is caused by immune processes and inflammation. Subcritically injured cells, which are usually found in the vicinity of the damaged tissue or organ, primarily commit suicide instead of repairing themselves. This process further increases the damaged tissue volume. To repair this damage, which is (potentially) possible in most organs by the specific stem cells residing in them, is very slow or does not happen at all without external stimulation. In such cases, stem cells therapies have been demonstrated to be extremely effective in stimulating repair and limiting further damage

Medical Applications of (MSCs)

At the same time several hundred clinical studies are ongoing to investigate their regenerative abilities in greater detail. From a biological point-of-view, they are progenitor cells of connective tissues. This means that they are important for building and maintaining the healthy status of connective tissues throughout the whole body and are known as stromal stem cells.  Likewise, they possess the ability to differentiate into a spectrum of other cell types, including chondrocytes (cartilage cells), osteoblasts (bone cells), adipocytes (fat cells), etc. This property classifies them as “multipotent stem cells” (being able to transform into many cell types). 
There are several reasons of why they are the leading stem cell type in medical applications and clinical trials on humans:

Various conditions have been treated with Stem Cell therapy and current research shows promising future applications.  Adult adipose tissue contains mesenchymal stem cells that are being employed in both research and clinical environments for a variety of aesthetic and medical conditions.  Examples of injuries, genetic conditions or diseases treated with stem cell regenerative therapy, include:

  • Skin regeneration
  • Wrinkles treatment
  • Wound healing
  • Stimulation of Hair growth
  • Neurology (Motor Neuron Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Spinal Cord Injuries)
  • Orthopaedics (Osteo-arthritis, cartilage & bone repair)
  • Sports injury (cartilage & ligament repair)
  • Treatment of bone defect (Autologous fresh ASCs)
  • Rectovaginal fistula (Autologous cultured expanded ASCs)
  • Radiation necrosis
  • Breast reconstruction, partial mastectomy and radiation therapy
  • Respiratory system (COPD’s such as emphysema)
  • Cardiology (Heart muscle regeneration)
  • Salivary gland regeneration (radiation induced Xerostomia)
  • Blood circulation (Critical Limb Ischemia)
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Muscular dystrophies
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type I
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases & many other areas
  • Stress urinary incontinence
  • Renal ischaemia
  • Liver insufficiency
  • Non-alcoholic chronic liver disease
  • Renal ishaemia

Medical Uses of Stem Cells from Fat Tissue
Adipose-Derived Stem Cells- (ADSCs)

The clinical use of autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is rapidly expanding because of promising results across a wide range of conditions. The use of autologous adipose-derived pluripotent cells is growing at the clinical level. Clinical and pre-clinical studies show that autogenous ADSCs demonstrably survive after transplantation, show pluripotential differentiation and exhibit anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and angiogenic effects.

 A variety of tissues and organs engineered using ADSCs have been described. In vitro studies rapidly progressed to in vivo experiments, where ADSCs were tested with or without appropriate scaffolds to assess their capability to effectively regenerate and repair tissues or organs. ADSCs were initially assessed for their commitment into cell lineages of mesodermal origin. ADSCs have been successfully induced to differentiate into adipose tissue after being preinduced in adipogenic differentiation medium, seeded onto a scaffold of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), type I collagen sponge, and fibrin glue. This result was confirmed using macroscopic morphology observations, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Similar findings were reported by other groups that tested the in vivo commitment of ADSCs into cell lineages of mesodermal, ectodermal and endodermal origins. ADSC therapeutic effects in cranial bone, articular chondrocytes. Cardiac wall regeneration & functional repair after myocardial infarction as ADSCs transplantation induces neovascularization in the ischemic myocardium and cause functional improvement.  After stroke have all been investigated, the review and meta-analysis (2017) provides further evidence for the safety and feasibility of cell therapies for stroke. There is reasonable evidence to suggest feasibility, safety and potential effectiveness of these therapies.

Research on Crohn disease reported that expanded ADSCs are more efficient than the freshly prepared in controlling inflammation and improving healing process, and the strong immunosuppressive effect of ADSCs lead to a planned trial in multiple sclerosis.

Uses of Adult Stem Cells (ASCs) in Plastic Surgery

As part of the practicing field of the plastic surgeons is performing procedures in the fields of skin and adipose tissue grafting, the reconstruction of compound tissue loss and congenital malformations, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and burns, as well as cosmetic surgery.

The most commonly utilized stem cells for these purposes are adult stem cells (ASCs), which are present in small amounts in every tissue; among these are two types of cells: bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) & adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)

Plastic surgeons historically have used tissues of human being to restore various defect sites and utilized a single cell lines for the tissue regeneration. The cell sources (autologous or allogenic), cell types (embryonic stem cell or adult stem cell), and source of tissues (bone marrow, muscle, adipose, cartilage, or blood) are very important for stem cell-based tissue coverage.

Adult stem cells are easily accessed for plastic surgeons during many routine procedures. The major advantage of stem cell therapy is avoiding potentially harmful surgical procedures and resulting donor-site morbidity. In particular, it can reduce the surgical risk for elderly patients that even, skin grafting, or flap surgery can be a great loading due to poor general status of patients.

Indications are:

  • Bony & Soft Tissue Defect: like, traumatic skin defect, severe burn, scar, Non-healing wounds complicated by ischemia like bed sore, diabetic foot ulcer, etc.
  • Recent emphasis on the regenerative capacity of adipose-derived stem cells and their utility in the improvement of wound healing & scarring provided by their cytokine & growth factor profiles. 
  • Aesthetic Applications: It also becomes very attractive tool for skin rejuvenation, scar improvement, vaginal rejuvenation, correction of soft tissue defect congenital or post-trauma or surgery. Also, enriched fat with stem cells for augmentation of breast. The research work using various stem cells is still ongoing by many plastic surgeons.

There are quite rich literatures on the use of ADSCs for soft tissue augmentation in plastic and reconstructive surgery. It has been proven that ADSCs can enhance wound healing by promoting collagen synthesis and the migration of dermal fibroblasts. ADSCs transplantation induces neovascularization in the ischemic myocardium, and the skin flap by paracrine vasculogenesis promoting growth factors. Today ADSCs can be applied in treatments for which fat transplantation already occur, giving result 10 times higher in aging, burns, scars, breast augmentation, wound healing, wrinkle correction , and breast reconstruction.  The ADSCs demonstrated strong angiogenic features in the ischemic hind limb, myocardial infraction, and wound healing. In this field they seem to be more efficient than their bone marrow counterpart; they also have the ability to modulate immune and inflammatory function, probably mediated via paracrine activity.

Read More – References

 

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