Uses of Fat Stem Cells in Cosmetic & Plastic Surgery
As part of the practicing field of the plastic surgeons is performing procedures in the fields of skin and adipose tissue grafting, the reconstruction of compound tissue loss and congenital malformations, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and burns, as well as cosmetic surgery.
The most commonly utilized stem cells for these purposes are adult stem cells (ASCs), which are present in small amounts in every tissue; among these are two types of cells: bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs).
Plastic surgeons historically have used tissues of human being to restore various defect sites and utilized a single cell lines for the tissue regeneration. The cell sources (autologous or allogeneic), cell types (embryonic stem cell or adult stem cell), and source of tissues (bone marrow, muscle, adipose, cartilage, or blood) are very important for stem cell-based tissue coverage.
Adult stem cells are easily accessed for plastic surgeons during many routine procedures. The major advantage of stem cell therapy is avoiding potentially harmful surgical procedures and resulting donor-site morbidity. In particular, it can reduce the surgical risk for elderly patients that even, skin grafting, or flap surgery can be a great loading due to poor general status of patients.
- Bony & Soft Tissue Defect: like, traumatic skin defect, severe burn, scar, Non-healing wounds complicated by ischaemia like bed sore, diabetic foot ulcer, etc.
- Aesthetic Applications: It also becomes very attractive tool for skin rejuvenation, scar improvement, vaginal rejuvenation, correction of soft tissue defect congenital or post-trauma or surgery. Also, enriched fat with stem cells for augmentation of breast. The research work using various stem cells is still ongoing by many plastic surgeons.
There are quite rich literatures on the use of ADSC for soft tissue augmentation in plastic and reconstructive surgery. It has been proven that ADSCs can enhance wound healing by promoting collagen synthesis and the migration of dermal fibroblasts. ADSCs transplantation induces neovascularization in the ischemic myocardium, and the skin flap by paracrine vasculogenesis promoting growth factors. Today ADSC can be applied in treatments for which fat transplantations already occur, giving result 10 times higher in aging, burns, scars, breast augmentation, wound healing, wrinkle correction, and breast reconstruction. The ADSC demonstrated strong angiogenic features in the ischemic hind limb, myocardial infraction, and wound healing. In this field they seem to be more efficient than their bone marrow counterpart; they also have the ability to modulate immune and inflammatory function, probably mediated via paracrine activity.
- Asatrian G, Pham D, Hardy WR et al (2015) Stem cell technology for bone regeneration: current status and potential applications. Stem Cells Cloning 8:39–48 Click Here for PDF
- Di Rocco G, Gentile A, Antonini A et al (2010) Enhanced healing of diabetic wounds by topical administration of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells overexpressing stromal-derived factor-1: biodistribution and engraftment analysis of bioluminescent imaging. Stem Cells Int 2011:1-11 Click Here for PDF
- E. Kokai, K. Marra, J.P. Rubin, (2014) Adipose stem cells: biology and clinical applications for tissue repair and regeneration, Trans. Res. 163, 399-408. Click Here for PDF
- Eto H, Kato H, Suga H et al (2012) The fate of adipocytes after non-vascularized fat grafting: evidence of early death and replacement of adipocytes. Plast Reconstr Surg 129:1081–1092 Click Here for PDF
- Gould, P. Abadir, H. Brem, et al., (2015) Chronic wound repair and healing in older adults: current status and future research, Wound Rep. Reg. 23 1-13. Click Here for PDF
- Kapur SK, Katz AJ (2013) Review of the adipose derived stem cell secretome. Biochimie 95:2222–2228 Click Here for PDF
- Kimura, M. Ozeki, T. Inamoto, Y. Tabata, (2003) Adipose tissue engineering based on human preadipocytes combined with gelatin microspheres containing basic fibroblast growth factor, Biomaterials 24, 2513-2521. Click Here for PDF
- M. Cowan, Y.Y. Shi, O.O. Aalami, et al., (2004) Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects, Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 560-567. Click Here for PDF
- Masuoka, T. Asazuma, H. Hattori, et al., (2006) Tissue engineering of articular cartilage with autologous cultured adipose tissue-derived stromal cells using atelocollagen honeycomb-shaped scaffold with a membrane sealing in rabbits, J. Biomed. Mater Res. B 79 25-34. Click Here for PDF
- Matsumoto D, Sato K, Gonda K et al (2006) Cell-assisted lipotansfer: supportive use of human adipose-derived stem cells for soft tissue augmentation with lipoinjection. Tissue Eng 12(12):3375–3383 Click Here for PDF
- Mizuno, M. Tobita, A.C. Uysal, (2012) Concise review: adipose-derived stem cells as a novel tool for future regenerative medicine, Stem Cell 30, 804-810. Click Here for PDF
- Mizuno, (2009) Adipose-derived stem cells for tissue repair and regeneration: ten years of research and a literature review, J. Nippon. Med. Sch. 76 56-66. Click Here for PDF
- Miyahara, N. Nagaya, M. Kataoka, et al., (2006) Monolayered mesenchymal stem cells repair scarred myocardium after myocardial infarction, Nat. Med. 12, 459-465.Click Here for PDF
- Naderi N, Wilde C, Haque T et al (2014) Adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells in a 3-dimensional spheroid culture (microtissue): implications for the reconstructive surgeon. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 67(12):1726–1734 Click Here for PDF
- Nagaishi K, Arimura Y, Fujimiya M (2015) Stem cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. J Gastroenterol 50(3):280–286 Click Here for PDF
- Nagpal, A., Choy, F. C., Howell, S., Hillier, S., Chan, F., Hamilton-Bruce, M. A., & Koblar, S. A. (2017). Safety and effectiveness of stem cell therapies in early-phase clinical trials in stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stem Cell Res Ther, 8(1), 191.Click Here for PDF
- Planat-Benard V, Silvestre JS, Cousin B et al (2004) Plasticity of human adipose lineage cells towards endothelial cells: physiological and therapeutic perspectives. Circulation 109:656–663 Click Here for PDF
- Rehmam J, Traktuev D, Li J et al (2004) Secretion of angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors by human adipose stromal cells. Circulation 109:1292–1298 Click Here for PDF
- S. Choi, S.M. Cha, Y.Y. Lee, S.W. Kwon, C.J. Park, M. Kim, (2006) Adipogenic differentiation of adipose tissue derived adult stem cells in nude mouse, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 345 631-637. Click Here for PDF
- Savi M, Bocchi L, Fiumana E et al (2015) Enhanced engraftment and repairing ability of human adipose-derived stem cells, conveyed by pharmacologically active microcarriers continuously releasing HGF and IGF-1, in healing myocardial infarction. J Biomed Mater Res A. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.35442 Click Here for PDF
- Schenke-Layland, B.M. Strem, M.C. Jordan, et al., (2009) Adipose tissue-derived cells improve cardiac function following myocardial infarction, J. Surg. Res. 153, 217-223 Click Here for PDF
- Suga H, Eto H, Aoi N et al (2010) Adipose tissue remodeling under ischemia:death of adipocytes and activation of stem/progenitor cells. Plast Recon-str Surg 126:911–923 Click Here for PDF
- Ude CC, Sulaiman SB, Min-Hwei N et al (2014) Cartilage regeneration by chondrogenic induced adult stem cells in osteoarthritic sheep model. PLoS One 9(6):e98770 Click Here for PDF
- Zuk PA, Zhu M, Mizuno H et al (2001) Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Tissue Eng 7:211–229 Click Here for PDF